The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) governs immigration in Canada, outlining the rules and procedures.

IRPA defines immigration categories: economic, family, refugees, and humanitarian, each with specific criteria and processes.

The act highlights immigration streams, including Express Entry for skilled workers and PNP for provincial-specific needs.

Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB): The IRB is an independent administrative tribunal making decisions on immigration and refugee matters.

The Refugee Protection Division (RPD) is part of the IRB and decides if someone qualifies as a refugee under the Refugee Convention.

Immigration Appeal Division (IAD): The IAD hears appeals from individuals with denied immigration applications or removal orders.

Detention Review: The Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) conducts detention reviews for individuals held in immigration detention.

Hearings and Decision Making: The IRB conducts hearings for applicants to present their cases and evidence and provide fair decisions. 

Deportation and Removal: The IRB may issue removal orders for individuals found inadmissible to Canada.

Judicial Review: If dissatisfied with an IRB decision, individuals can seek a judicial review through the Federal Court of Canada to ensure procedural fairness. 

Under the IRPA, individuals with exceptional circumstances can apply for permanent residency based on humanitarian and compassionate grounds.